Glossary

Profession names

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of New Zealand

Ergonomist; Human Factors Professional

New Zealand Institute of Safety Management Health and Safety Practitioner, Health and Safety Professional
New Zealand Occupational Health Nurses Association Occupational Health Nurse - Proficient; Occupational Health Nurse - Expert
New Zealand Occupational Hygiene Society Occupational Hygienist
 Occupational Therapy New Zealand - Whakaora Ngangahau Aotearoa Registered Occupational Therapist/Kaiwhakaora Ngangahau
Physiotherapy New Zealand - Occupational Health Physiotherapy Group Physiotherapist – Occupational Health

General services

Accident or incident investigations The process of systematically gathering and analysing information about an accident or incident. This is done for the purposes of identifying root causes and/or making recommendations to prevent those types of accidents or incidents from happening again.
Expert witness Providing a skilled commentary on factual matters to allow decision-makers to better assess the probability that one or other of the various available inferences or conclusions is correct. 
Contractor safety management The managing of outsourced work performed for an individual company. Contractor management implements a system that pre-qualifies, manages and monitors contractors' health and safety information, insurance information, training programs and specific documents that pertain to the contractor and the owner client. This is done through a process of consultation, co-ordination and co-operation between the parties.
Compliance with legislation Working with organisations to ensure that they are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant health and safety laws and regulations.
Hazard or risk assessment Hazard identification, risk assessment and management: A systematic process to identify hazards and assess/quantify the likelihood, consequence/severity of harm and put in place appropriate controls.  
Health and safety advice An opinion or recommendation about managing a business' health and/or safety risks.
Health and safety assessment A health and safety assessment evaluates risk generated in the workplace or in the work process with objectives to remove, reduce and replace the source of risk with safer equipment or processes, or to lessen the risk to the health and safety of the workers.  This may include assessment at an organisational, business unit or site specific level.
Health and safety assurance Evaluating health and safety management system effectiveness to provide confidence to management on whether the system is fit-for-purpose.
Health and safety audit A systematic examination against defined criteria to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements, whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the organisation's policy and objectives.
Health and safety benchmarking Assessing an organisation or work group's health and safety performance against other similar work groups, organisations or industries.
Health and safety for diversity Developing information, designing work processes and systems for a  diverse workforce (ethnicity, culture, language, disability, age, literacy, gender).
Health and safety governance Ensuring appropriate systems and processes are in place to support health and safety and, critically, that there is proper resourcing and verification of health and safety at the board table.
Health and safety leadership Facilitating the development of commitment, attributes and leadership behaviours of people in businesses in order to develop a positive health and safety culture.
Health and safety management systems Facilitating the development of a health and safety management system which includes organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, policy, procedures, processes and resources, for developing, implementing, reviewing and maintaining positive workplace health and safety practices.
Health and safety policies Guiding management in the development of a statement of intent which details their commitment to achieving the organisation's health and safety objectives. 
Health and safety system performance Measuring the effectiveness of the workplace health and safety management system.
Monitoring and reporting Collecting data and/or analysing and interpreting actual health and safety performance compared with specific objectives, targets or standards.
Mentoring Providing a learning partnership between an experienced professional person (mentor) and a less experienced person (mentee) for the purpose of sharing knowledge and information.  
Risk management systems Providing advice about systems that enable the setting of priorities based on risk assessment, establishing efficient and consistent risk reduction policies, evaluating the range of risk reduction alternatives, identifying cost-effective risk reduction measures, and identifying risk mitigation and contingency measures.
Training / education Providing education, training or facilitation in health and safety-related topics.
Wellness Designing and implementing programmes which educate and promote positive choices towards a healthy and fulfilling life. 
Worker engagement, participation and representation Working with organisations to help them involve their workers in workplace health and safety.
Individual computer workstation set-up and advice  Assessing and providing education/guidance on workstation equipment and its adjustment, and on work methods including break practices and exercise to maintain health, comfort and performance at work a.k.a 'workstation audits or assessments'.

Specialist services

Asbestos Specialist advice and services in relation to the management, identification and measurement of asbestos.  This may include: personal exposure monitoring, bulk sampling or clearance sampling.
Biological monitoring incl. blood/urine Examination of biological specimens taken from a body (such as blood, urine, body tissue) for identification of health risks or in the course of a therapy.
Design of plant, substances and structures The design or redesign of plant, substances or structures that are used (or could reasonably be expected to be used) in workplaces. 'Designers' includes all PCBUS contributing to the design process. Design must consider the lifecycle of the artefact  and the health and safety of all those who interact with it at each stage including during construction, use and disposal.
Design of transportation systems User centred road/transport system design (often via a multidiscplinary team including human factors professionals) may incorporate: road safety/transportation research; system design recommendations and system specifications; human factors and user centred design methodology; road safety assessments; evaluation of human behaviour within the context of roading systems/transport; behavioural change programmes for transportation systems; and obtaining and analysing road user feedback.
Design verification Evaluation of whether a product, service, or system meets requirements and specifications (including compliance with regulations, requirements, specifications, or imposed conditions) and that it fulfils its intended purpose. In some circumstances design verification maybe restricted to certain persons by law or regulation e.g. cranes or pressure vessel design verification.
Drug and alcohol testing Testing of workers for alcohol and drugs in accordance with company protocols and New Zealand and international standards.
Dust and fibre control (not asbestos) Advice and services about the management and measurement of the release of dust and/or fibres from work processes. This can  include advice on control measures or conducting personal and/or area sampling.    
Environmental monitoring The systemic sampling of air, water, soil and organic material in order to observe and study the environment.
Employee/worker Assessment A medical, health and/or functional assessment of the worker to see whether they can safely do a specific job or task. 
Employee/worker Assessment - Pre-employment assessment A medical, health and/or functional assessment of the worker to see whether they can safely do a specific job or task prior to employment.
Employee/worker Assessment - Pre-employment medical A medical assessment of the worker to see whether they can safely do a specific job or task prior to employment.
Employee/worker Assessment - Fitness for work "Fit to work" or "fitness to work" is a medical, health and/or functional assessment done when an employer wishes to be sure a worker can safely do a specific job or task. The purpose is to determine if the worker can perform the job or task under the working conditions.
Employee/worker Assessment - Return to work An assessment of the worker and their job following time off work due to illness or injury.  This is used to determine if the worker can safely carry out their job or assist the worker to make a safe and sustainable return to work.
Employee/worker Assessment - Driver assessment An occupational therapy assessment to determine a worker's physical, functional and cognitive fitness to drive. This involves direct and practical observation of the driver in the vehicle.
Facilitation of health and safety by design processes Facilitating or coordinating health and safety by design processes for plant, substances and structures. This will usually involve coordinating the work of diverse technical specialists (potentially from multiple PCBUs) and facilitating the design process.
Human Factors/Ergonomics Assessment Analysing tasks, activities and systems to design for healthy and safe human performance in efficient and productive systems.  A range of methods are used to understand cognitive, physical, social and cultural aspects of performance.  This includes manual handling risk analysis; workplace, workstation and work process design; product usability; reducing human error; design of complex systems; and human/computer interaction.
Hazardous substances, dangerous goods management The management of hazardous substances (substances that are explosive, flammable, oxidising, toxic, corrosive or toxic to the environment (ecotoxic))
Hazardous substances, dangerous goods or chemicals advice Advice about handling, storing or transporting chemicals or hazardous substances (substances that are explosive, flammable, oxidising, toxic, corrosive or toxic to the environment (ecotoxic)).
Infectious substances advice Advice about handling and/or storing infectious substances (human or animal).
Radioactive substances advice Advice about handling and/or storing radioactive substances.
New organisms advice Advice about handling and/or storing materials which are or may contain new organisms or genetically modified organisms.  
Hazardous substances, dangerous goods or chemicals awareness Preliminary advice about thresholds for handling, storing or transporting chemicals or hazardous substances (substances that are explosive, flammable, oxidising, toxic, corrosive or toxic to the environment (ecotoxic)).
Hazardous substances, dangerous goods or chemicals storage or inventory management Advice on the preparation of a hazardous substances inventory and a site plan that shows where they are stored. The inventory should show the name of the substance, its hazard classification, strength of (liquid) solution and amount held for each separate location.
Health monitoring The systematic measurement and reporting of worker health, including as a result of exposure to work-related health hazards. 
High hazard facilities  Specialist advice for workplaces designated as Major Hazard Facilities.
Immunisation services Advice and delivery of immunisation for infectious diseases and travel medicine, e.g. Flu, Hepatitis A and B, Tetanus
Injury/illness management/treatment Education, intervention and/or procedures that are undertaken or established to assist workers to stay at, or return to, work following injuries, or illness.  Injury management teams may be necessary to provide skilled support for injured workers, with different professionals taking complementary roles.
 Job demand analysis /task analysis Evaluating task or job requirements to assess the physical, functional and/or cognitive demands on workers.  This can be used as a pre-requisite for developing a physical, functional or cognitive capacity evaluation or to set baseline requirements for a task/job.
Pain and discomfort management Assessing an individual in their job to identify factors contributing to discomfort, in order to prevent more significant pain or injury. This will include the provision of education/guidance on workstation equipment and its adjustment, and on work methods including  break practices, exercises in order to maintain health and comfort at work.
Injury/discomfort prevention Workplace and system design, education, or procedures to reduce injury or discomfort to workers.
Injury/illness rehabilitation Specific tailored advice and intervention to assist the worker to remain at or return to work following injury or illness.
Selection and use of equipment for moving and handling of people and/or animals Advice on selection and use of any appliance used to moving and handling people and/or animals, for example patient lifters.
Design and/or certification of lifting equipment for workers  Design and/or certification of any appliance used to facilitate working at heights, for example mobile elevated work platforms, crane lifted work platforms, man cages.
Design and/or certification of lifting equipment for material handling Design and/or certification of any appliance used for lifting or moving material, for example lifting beams or stillages. 
Selection and use of lifting equipment for workers  Advice on selection and use of any appliance used to facilitate working at heights, for example mobile elevated work platforms, crane lifted work platforms, man cages.
Selection and use of lifting equipment for material handling Advice on selection and use of any appliance used for lifting or moving material, for example lifting beams or stillages. 
Machinery health and safety Advice relating to the safe and healthy design, operation and/or maintenance of machinery.  
Machinery health and safety - machine guarding Providing preliminary advice on guarding and other aspects of using machinery safely.
Machinery health and safety - machine guarding design and certification Risk assessment, design and certification of guarding and/or other safety features to AS/NZ 4024 or other relevant international standards.  
Medical certification  A medical assessment done when a business or undertaking wishes to be sure a worker can safely do a specific job or task. The purpose is to determine if medically the worker can perform the job or task under the working conditions.
Design for moving and handling of people/animals A systems-based design approach to reduce exposure to the risks associated with the moving and handling of people or animals.  This approach includes risk assessment, facility design, equipment selection, work organisation and education.
Moving and handling of people/animals training Practical advice and training in handling people or animals, including risk assessment and use of equipment, specific to the nature of the work and workers.
Moving and handling (manual handling) training Practical advice and training in lifting and handling, including risk assessment, specific to the nature of the work and workers.
Noise assessments Conducting sound surveys to establish the noise environment's potential for producing noise induced hearing loss, and to identify controls. 
Audiometry assessments The measurement of the hearing threshold level of a person by means of a bilateral pure tone air conduction threshold test.
Pandemic management  Advice on preparation for and response to a pandemic event.
Cabin Operator Protective Structures (COPS) Advice about the need for structures to reduce the likelihood of harm to the operator of mobile plant.
Design and/or certification of Cabin Operator Protective Structures (COPS) Design and/or certification of structures to protect the operator of mobile plant, for example, ROPS, TOPS, FOPS and OPS.
Safety cases  Advice in relation to the preparation of safety cases usually required under the Major Hazard Facilities (MHF) Regulations. A safety case contains all matters required in Schedule 7 of the MHF Regulations. This includes the safety assessment, emergency plan, and safety management system as well as additional information as required by the MHF Regulations. The safety case is a written demonstration that you have the ability and means to control major hazards incidents effectively.
SafePlus onsite assessments Onsite assessments by independent accredited assessors on how well businesses are performing against the SafePlus performance requirements and advice on how to improve. SafePlus is a new, voluntary, health and safety performance improvement toolkit for businesses. It defines what good health and safety looks like, above minimum legal compliance. SafePlus is a joint initiative developed by WorkSafe New Zealand, ACC and the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE).
Thermal environment advice Advice about or measurement of the thermal environment which includes air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative air speed, humidity as well as work rate (metabolic heat production) and clothing. This can be applied to indoor work environments as well as outdoor environments.  
Workplace assessments - simple A preliminary assessment of work tasks, techniques, workload, equipment and environment. 
Workplace assessments - complex  An in-depth assessment of work tasks, techniques, workload, equipment and environment. The scope and nature of a workplace assessment can vary considerably depending on the needs of the business.
Workplace assessments - lighting The provision of advice regarding lighting, and/or the measurement of lighting to ascertain the quantity and quality of light to fulfill three functions:  ensure the safety of people, facilitate the performance of the visual tasks and aid the creation of the appropriate visual environment. A full light survey can identify defects in the lighting system and the potential for short or long term health problems. 
Workplace assessments - termperature/thermal environment The provision of advice regarding work environment temperature, and/or the measurement of the impact of working in hot and cold environments where exposure to extreme heat or cold can result in illness, injury and, in extreme cases, death. This can include measurements for heat stress/strain or cold stressors. 
Workplace assessments - ventilation Advice and/or measurement of the effectiveness of industrial ventilation systems to control contaminants in the workplace by either dilution or local exhaust ventilation. This can include measurement of the contaminants through personal or area sampling, microbiological monitoring for bacteria or viruses, or the assessment of the thermal environment for health and wellness.  
Workplace assessments - indoor air quality Advice and/or measurement of the pollutant levels, air temperature, and humidity, air velocity, odours etc either individually or in combination that affect a person's health and wellbeing.
Workplace assessments - radiation Advice and/or the measurement of radiation exposure. For ionising radiation this can include gamma, x-rays, alpha, beta, proton and neutrons or for non-ionising radiation microwaves, lasers and radiowaves etc.
Workstation assessment An in-depth assessment of  the immediate area accessed by a worker when performing a specific task or job cycle.  
Workstation and environment setup advice for people with disabilities  Provision of advice for workstation, work task and work environment setup for people with disabilities (eg wheelchair users, those with vision impairment, or people with physical or mental/cognitive impairment) to enable optimal participation in the workforce. 
Workplace design The designing of workplace physical environments, work processes, work methods,  and tools/equipment/plant to maximise productivity and reduce injury and health risks. (See "Work system design" for more complex requirements).
Work system design The design of work systems and parts of work systems to optimise health and safety or workers and productivity of processes. Design focus may be on task processes, workplace layout and relationships, the functioning of items of plant and equipment, the knowledge and skills required by operators for optimal system functioning, the usability of equipment/software, and/or cognitive/psychological aspects of performance.  Work system design is likely to include assessment of worker population function in existing systems. The knowledge gained from assessment may inform the selection/procurement of plant, furniture and equipment. A wide range of assessment methods and a team approach may be utilised.  

Specific injury or illness

Addictions (drugs and alcohol)  The compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance (e.g. alcohol, heroin, nicotine) characterized by tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal; broadly: persistent compulsive use of a substance known by the user to be harmful. Addiction and dependency can range from mild to severe.Addictions to behaviour (e.g. gambling, pornography) also have mental and physical effects.
Ageing issues Age is not a barrier to work but ageing can mean the workplace has to manage a worker with a number of degenerative processes, from arthritis to dementia.
Amputation  The removal of a part or all of a body part that is enclosed by skin (usually a limb or digit) by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Animal or zoonotic diseases  Infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to humans.
Back or Musculoskeletal Injuries/discomfort Injuries or pain in the body's joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back. This can arise from a sudden exertion (e.g., lifting a heavy object), or from making the same motions repeatedly (repetitive strain), or from repeated exposure to force, vibration, or awkward posture.
Burns A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Most burns are due to heat from hot liquids, solids, or fire.The severity (or 'degree') of a burn relates to the number of layers of skin affected. The four degrees commonly referred to have different areas of injury, treatment options, and lasting effect.
Cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Occupational exposure to chemicals, dusts, radiation, and certain industrial processes have been tied to occupational cancer. Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals, also called carcinogens, may cause mutations that allow cells to grow out of control, causing cancer.Carcinogens in the workplace may include chemicals like anilines, chromates, dinitrotoluenes, arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds, beryllium and beryllium compounds, cadmium compounds, and nickel compounds. Dusts that can cause cancer include leather or wood dusts, asbestos, crystalline forms of silica, coal tar pitch volatiles, coke oven emissions, diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. Sunlight, radon gas, and industrial, medical, or other exposure to ionizing radiation can all also cause cancer in the workplace. Industrial processes associated with cancer include aluminum production, iron and steel founding, and underground mining with exposure to uranium or radon.
Communicable diseases Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.
Crushing injuries  Crush injury is compression of extremities or other parts of the body that causes muscle swelling and/or neurological disturbances in the affected areas of the body, while crush syndrome is localized crush injury with systemic manifestations.
Cuts and lacerations  A type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.
Depression An illness that can affect how people feel and behave for weeks or months at a time. Depression is a state of a lasting low mood and often an aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being, and impact sleep, relationships, job and appetite. Some specific areas of depression include post-natal depression, depression in the elderly, physical illness (some symptoms of physical illness are difficult to distinguish from those of depression), and depression in children and adolescents.
Eye/Sight issues A gradual or severe reduction in vision, which can be temporary (due to eye injury) or gradual (such as development of eye conditions such as glaucoma, cataracts, macular degeneration), that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses and reduces a person’s ability to function at certain or all tasks.
Fatal injuries A fatality is the permanent death of a person (i.e. it does not include instances where a person is revived). A fatal injury is a traumatic injury that directly causes the permanent death of a person. This means it does not include death as a result of illness or chronic issues, but only those by acute harm from a traumatic event. In cases where attribution is unclear a Coronial decision stands as the official cause of death - this may apply, for example, where there are multiple injuries that alone may not have caused death, where trauma was a reasonably long time before death, or where existing illness or chronic conditions impaired recovery from trauma. 
Fatigue / Chronic fatigue Fatigue can be a symptom of a medical problem, but more commonly it is a normal physiological reaction to exertion, lack of sleep, boredom, changes to sleep-wake schedules (including jet lag), or stress. Physical fatigue is the inability to continue functioning at the level of one's normal abilities; a person with physical fatigue cannot lift as heavy a box or walk as far as they could if not fatigued. Mental fatigue manifests in sleepiness or slowness. A person with mental fatigue may fall asleep, react very slowly, or be inattentive. With microsleeps, the person may be unaware they were asleep. Without proper amount of sleep, it will feel like certain tasks seem complicated, concentration will drop and it can ultimately result in fatal mistakes.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome Excessive exposure to hand arm vibrations can result in Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) or Vibration White Finger (VWF). This can affect nerves, joints, muscles, blood vessels or connective tissues of the hand and forearm. Symptoms include: a) Tingling 'whiteness' or numbness in the fingers (blood vessels and nerves affected). b) Fingers change colour (blood vessels affected) from pale and sometimes bluish when expoosed to the cold, to a red flush (often with throbbing) when circulation returns. c) Loss of manual dexterity and reduced griop strength (nerves and muscles affected). In more severe forms, attacks may occur frequently in cold weather, not only at work, but during leisure activities, such as gardening, car washing or even watching outdoor sports.
Head injury Head injury usually refers to a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), when an external force injures the brain, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull. TBIs can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Concussion refers to a mild TBI and can often go undiagnosed. Symptoms vary amongst individuals and may include symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, visual disturbances, memory loss, and poor concentration.
Hearing loss  A partial or total inability to hear. Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent. Hearing loss is diagnosed when hearing testing finds that a person is unable to hear 25 decibels in at least one ear. Hearing loss can be categorised as mild, moderate, severe, or profound. Hearing loss may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, ageing, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, and certain medications or toxins. A common condition that results in hearing loss is chronic ear infections. 
Heart /vascular disease Diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs are stroke, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, and venous thrombosis.
Hepatitis A disease of the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. Hepatitis may occur without symptoms, but can lead to jaundice (a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and conjunctiva of the eyes), poor appetite, and fatigue.  Includes Hepatitis A, B and C.
HIV/AIDS  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection. 
Injuries from animals  Traumatic injuries directly caused by animals, usually impact trauma (kicks, bites, headbutts, stomping, crushing, falls from an animal etc.). Also includes scratches, which depending on injury site can be more or less serious (e.g. eyes).  Animals (living or dead) can also be a source of illness and disease.
Manual handling injuries  Injury (gradual or acute) caused by any activity requiring a person to interact with their environment and use any part of their muscles or skeletal system to lift, lower, push, pull, carry, throw, move, restrain or hold any animate, or inanimate, object.
Mental disabilities or impairment A mental impairment is defined as “any mental or psychological disorder, such as an intellectual disability (formerly termed “mental retardation”), organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental illness, and specific learning disabilities.” This may manifest in a slower pace of learning for individuals with learning difficulties due to dyspraxia or dyslexia, arrested brain development ( due to lack of oxygen at birth, foetal alcohol syndrome and other developmental problems). In some people there can be significant impairment of intelligence and social functioning and is associated with abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct.
Mental health issues in the workplace In any organisation there will be a range of mental health experiences across employees and this will change over time. This range includes people experiencing optimal/'positive' mental health, people who are mentally unwell (and/or have a diagnosed mental illness which may or may not be being treated), people who lack general mental wellbeing (usually disengaged and unmotivated people who lack meaning or purpose in their daily lives), and people who don't meet the criteria for a diagnosable mental illness but may be highly stressed or distressed due to home or work life or a traumatic event.  Health issues can manifest in a variety of ways in the workplace. The two most significant ways in which workplaces experience poor physical and mental health of employees is through increased absenteeism (when workers are off sick), and increased presenteeism (when workers are at the workplace but not mentally engaged with work).
OOS (Occupational Overuse Syndrome) or RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury) An umbrella term covering a range of disorders characterised by pain and/or other sensations in muscles, tendons, nerves, soft tissues and joints with clinical signs evident to a medical practitioner. Symptoms such as pain, discomfort, and muscle weakness may continue even after initial clinical signs have diminished and tend to develop gradually and worsen over time if not addressed. The disorders are caused, or significantly contributed to, by occupational factors including prolonged muscle tension, repetitive actions, forceful movements and sustained or constrained postures, which exceed the usual ability of the body to rapidly recover.
Other occupational diseases Any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity.
Pain and discomfort Pain and discomfort is subjective, though discomfort is usually regarded as a less serious form of pain. People who experience pain or discomfort may or may not have an identifiable injury, and the amount pain or discomfort someone experiences does not necessarily relate to the amount of any tissue damage or severity of an injury. Pain and discomfort can itself lead to injury, where the right combination of contributing factors exist.  Pain and discomfort can manifest from traumatic injury or illness (from minor to very severe), gradual process conditions, and strains and sprains (including back/neck pain). Aside from trauma, usually it is as a result of a body being used in a way it is not designed to do comfortably.
Pandemic An epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.  New Zealand's pandemic planning includes the Epidemic Preparedness Act 2006 and other amendment acts. Planning and management is needed for workplaces to manage their people and interations with customers in the event of a communicable disease outbreak that spreads into the wider population.
Physical Disabilities or Impairment A physical disability or impairment is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina. More specifically this may affect a person’s mobility, hand function, sight, hearing, or speech within a work setting. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy and sleep disorders.  [Also see Mental Disablities or Impairment]
Poisoning Poisoning is exposure to a substance that is harmful to your body. Acute poisoning results from poison entering the body in a short time. Chronic poisoning results from gradual accumulation of a poison. The branch of medicine that deals with the detection and treatment of poisons is toxicology. Poisons can be swallowed, inhaled, absorbed through the skin or injected under the skin. Some poisons have only minor effects and others can have serious consequences (such as seizures, difficulty breathing, uneven heartbeat, or liver or kidney failure). These need immediate medical treatment and can result in death.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a psychological reaction to experiencing or witnessing a significantly stressful, traumatic or shocking event. PTSD manifests as persistent mental and emotional stress occurring as a result of this injury or severe psychological shock, and typically involves disturbance of sleep and constant vivid recall of the experience, with dulled responses to others and to the outside world.  Without treatment PTSD can lead to depression and suicidal thoughts. Anxiety, panic attacks, eating disorders, and substance abuse are also common elements of PTSD.
Pregnancy Pregnancy can affect the body and mind, impacting on energy levels, physical mobility, and general feelings of wellness. Pregnant people can also suffer from side-effects (ranging in severity) including nausea, insomnia, back pain, and mood changes.Employers have a legal obligation to accommodate pregnancy-related needs unless the accommodation will cause undue hardship. Undue hardship considers factors such as health, safety and cost. The pregnant staff member, the employer, and other parties, such as union representatives, must cooperate and compromise to find reasonable and practical solutions. 
Respiratory illness / Asthma Disease of the airways and lungs. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as a cough or the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, acute asthma and lung cancer.
Skin disorders  A skin disease caused by a physical, chemical or biological hazard in the workplace. Contact dermatitis is the most common example.
Sprains, strains and bruises Injuries that involve body tissues apart from bone are generally classified as soft tissue injuries. Sprains, strains and bruises are all soft tissue injuries, although the cause and tissues involved in each injury are different. A sprain is an injury that involves the ligaments (tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect two bones together in joints) and other soft tissues around a joint, such as an ankle or wrist. A sprain stretches or tears the ligaments. A strain occurs away from a joint and involves a torn or overstretched muscle or tendon (the fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscles to bones), commonly in the calf, thigh or lower back. A strain stretches or tears the muscle or tendon. A bruise is a soft tissue injury that involves the skin and nearby tissues following a blow or other forces that break a blood vessel close to the surface of the body. Bruising may be seen with either a sprain or strain.
Stress and anxiety Stress describes the physical or emotional response to demands or pressures that people may experience from time to time. Common causes of stress include work, money, relationships and illness. Symptoms may include irritability, difficulty sleeping or relaxing, headaches and muscle tension. Anxiety, particularly ongoing, all-over anxiety or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is where the level and frequency that people experience stress, distress, dismay, and worry is greatly increased. It is common for people with GAD to have other conditions such as depression, or other anxiety-related disorders like panic attacks and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Traumatic injury Physical harm arising from a single accident or event and defined by the degree of physical incapacity. Traumatic injury requires immediate medical attention and may cause systemic shock called “shock trauma”, requiring immediate resuscitation and interventions to save life and limb.
Tropical disease Tropical diseases encompass all diseases that occur solely, or principally, in the tropics. The diseases are less prevalent in temperate climates, due in part to the occurrence of a cold season, which controls the insect population by forcing hibernation. In practice, the term is often taken to refer to infectious diseases that thrive in hot, humid conditions, such as malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and dengue.  Tropical diseases an become an issue for workplaces when a worker is going to a country with known disease risk or returning into a workplace having been exposed to these risks.[Also see Immunisation]
Wellbeing Wellbeing, welfare or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group, for example their social, economic, psychological, spiritual or medical state. A high level of wellbeing means in some sense the individual or group's condition is positive, while low wellbeing is associated with negative happenings.

 

Specific area of concern

Absenteeism  The practice of regularly staying away from work.  Also includes presenteeism, the practice of coming to work despite illness, injury, anxiety, etc., often resulting in reduced productivity. 
Abuse or harrassment  Abuse includes physical assault, sexual violence, emotional abuse and controlling behaviour. It is often a pattern of ongoing behaviour but may also refer to a one-off incident. Abuse can result in physical and mental health consequences for victims, perpetrators and children who are witnesses. Harassment is a pattern of behaviour that is directed against another person, including specified acts (for example as defined in the Harassment Act 1997) that causes the other person to fear for their safety (or that would cause a reasonable person in the circumstances to fear for their safety). In common use this can also extend to fear for the person's health.
Ageing workforce The average age of people in the New Zealand workforce is becoming older (and more female), and will stop expanding by about 2030. This will affect the labour market as ageing will affect the size, characteristics and possibly the productivity of the New Zealand workforce.  Issues that may affect workers include vision, hearing, mobility, speed, agility, memory and strength, anxiety due to retirement. Also ageing workers can have more sleep issues if doing rotating shift work. This will have implications in the way organisations will have to operate in the future in an environment where they can support their workers, and optimise productivity.
Air quality  This refers to the air quality (that is, the amount of chemicals and particles into the air we breathe) within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. 
Armed offenders People who use, or threaten to use, firearms against members of the public or police.
Asbestos A group of naturally occurring, fibrous minerals, hazardous to health. The term asbestos includes actinolite, amosite, chrysolite, crocidolite, fibrous anthophyllite or tremolite, or any mixture containing these minerals.
Assault / robbery  Assault is the act of intentionally applying or attempting to apply force to a person by another person, directly or indirectly, or threatening by any act or gesture to apply such force to a person by another person - if the person making the threat has (or causes the other to believe on reasonable grounds that they have) the present ability to effect their purpose. Robbery is theft accompanied by violence or threats of violence, to any person or property, used to extort the property stolen or to prevent or overcome resistance to its being stolen.
Bacteria, viruses and moulds Bacteria: single celled organisms that live in soil, water and air. There are many thousands of different types of bacteria - many are harmless, or even beneficial, but some bacteria cause disease, e.g. Legionnaires disease, types of food poisoning (e.g. salmonella) and anthrax. Viruses: tiny parasitic organisms that can only reproduce within living cells. Viruses cause many diseases including the common cold, influenza, measles, rabies, hepatitis and AIDS. Moulds - simple plants lacking chlorophyll and normal plant structures (e.g. leaves, stems etc).
Biological hazards Hazards that carry the risk of humans (or animals) contracting harmful bacteria, viruses and moulds. A fundamental difference between chemical and biological hazards is that biological agents, whether bacteria, viruses or moulds have the ability in the right conditions to rapidly replicate themselves. This means that the focus on control is not only avoidance of contact with the agent but also on ensuring that conditions favourable for growth of the organism are prevented.
Bullying  Repeated and unreasonable behaviour directed towards a person or a group of people that can lead to physical or psychological harm.  Repeated behaviour occurs more than once and can involve a range of actions over time. Unreasonable behaviour are actions that a reasonable person in the same circumstances would see as unreasonable. It includes victimising, humiliating, intimidating or threatening a person. Bullying may also include harassment, discrimination or violence. Common bullying behaviours fit into two main categories - attacks that are direct and personal or those that are indirect and task-related.
Dust and fibres (not asbestos)  Dusts are small solid particles, conventionally taken as those particles below 75 µm in diameter, which settle out under their own weight but which may remain suspended for some time. They may be work-generated or natural occurring. They include organic (e.g.  flour), metallic (e.g. lead) and chemical dusts. Fibres (non-asbestos) include synthetic fibrous materials such as rockwool (or stonewool) and glass wool, as well as ceramic, aramid, nylon, carbon and silicon carbide fibres.        
Dropped / falling objects  An object that either:1. Falls from a previous static position under its own weight (gravity) without applied force (for example due to something being dislodged from a person's hand or from rust, but that has no force but gravity applied to it) - a static object.2. Falls from a previous static position under its own weight (gravity) because of force applied by another object (and that therefore may have additional momentum applied from that force) - a dynamic object.
Drugs and alcohol A drug is any medicine or other substance (including alcohol and tobacco) which has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body. Drugs can have positive physiological or psychological effects, but also negative short- and long-term side-effects.The misuse of drugs and alcohol, including controlled or illicit drugs, can cause injury; disease; personal, social and financial problems; and a reduced quality of life. Addiction to drugs and alcohol describes compulsive and/or obsessive use and can be highly damaging.In a workplace health and safety context, advice and services related to drugs and alcohol can include development of policy and testing of workers for alcohol and/or drugs in accordance with company protocols and New Zealand and international standards.
Electric shocks Electric shock is the physiological reaction, sensation, or injury caused by electric current passing through the body. It occurs upon the direct or indirect contact of a body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair.The strength of current, circumstantial resistance of the body, and duration of current will effect the consequence to the body. Weak currents can be imperceptible, while strong currents can cause heart fibrillation, interference with the nervous system, tissue damage, or even death (electrocution). 
Explosive atmospheres or combustible dust A mixture of hazardous substances with air, under atmospheric conditions (ambient temperatures and pressures), in the form of gases, vapours, mist or dust in which, after ignition has occurred, combustion spreads to the entire unburned mixture.  If there is enough of the hazardous substance (e.g. paint vapour, methane, wood dust etc.) mixed in with air then all it needs is a source of ignition to cause an explosion.
Falls This includes falls from height as well as falls to depth.The act of moving from a higher to a lower level, usually in an uncontrolled manner under the force of gravity. A fall in the sense of injury is an event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level.  The consequences of a fall range in severity depending on a range of factors (e.g. their age, health, height from which they fell, and forces other than gravity acting on them). Globally, falls are the second leading cause of unintentional injury or death, after road/traffic injuries.[Also see Dropped/Falling objects]
Fatality A fatality is the permanent death of a person (i.e. it does not include instances where a person is revived). Fatalities can result from senescence ('old age'), injury, or illness or chronic issues. In cases where attribution is unclear a Coronial decision stands as the official cause of death, including drawing conclusions about whether a fatality was work-related.
Fumes (Mists/Vapours/ Fumes/Aerosols/Smoke) These are airborne contaminants that come in solid, semi-liquid mineral, liquid, chemical or organic material that can remain suspended in the air due to its small size. The individual  terms refer to the way the contaminant is generated. Vapours are forms of substances that are normally in the solid or liquid state at room temperature (e.g. degreasing solvents). Fumes are formed when material from a volatised solid condenses in cool air (e.g. welding or diesel fumes). Smoke is an aerosol of solid or liquid particles resulting from incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials (e.g. a fire). Aerosols are pollutants in liquid droplet form which are suspended and if very small are called mists or fog.  
Handheld tools / power tools A hand tool is any tool that is powered by hand (e.g. wrenches, pliers, cutters, striking tools, struck or hammered tools, screwdrivers, vises, clamps, snips, saws, drills and knives)A power tool is a tool that is actuated by an additional power source and mechanism other than solely manual labour. Commonly power tools use electric motors, internal combustion engines, steam engines, direct burning of fuel and/or propellants, or natural power sources like wind or moving water.PCBUs need to manage risks related to noise, machinery safety and vibration that arise from the use of handheld or power tools.
Hazardous substances and chemicals handling A hazardous substance is any substance that has one or more of the following intrinsic 'hazardous properties': explosiveness, flammability, ability to oxidise (accelerate a fire), human toxicity (acute or chronic), corrosiveness (to human tissue or metal), eco-toxicity (with or without bio-accumulation), and the capacity, on contact with air or water, to develop one or more of these properties.Different hazardous substances affect people in different ways. Health effects can include burns, posioning, personality changes, sleep disorders, memory loss, cancer, fertility problems, and death. The correct handling, storage, and use of hazardous substances is important to prevent negative health effects.Handling refers to the access to and interaction with hazardous substances where there is a risk of exposure (e.g. explosion, inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion).
Hazardous substances and chemicals transportation Hazardous substances can be classified under one of several similar systems. In New Zealand, the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (HSNO) system is used. HSNO requirements have been transferred to the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015 and a new set of Hazardous Substances Regulations came into force on 1 December 2017. Substances manufactured overseas may use another system.Safety Data Sheets provide important information about the hazards of a substance and how to handle, store, transport and dispose of it safely. Employers must keep records and track very hazardous substances from import or manufacture, to distribution and transport, through to use or disposal.[Also see Hazardous Substances & Chemicals Handling]
Human error prevention  Human error is when something is either done/not done by a human operator, which is unintended by the operational system and can lead to safety risks. Human error prevention (human reliability assessment - HRA) does not blame the operator, but considers that actions are the product of the system via its design, environment, culture, training and other factors. HRA presumes that an error could happen to any operator. 
Human performance Human performance is dynamic, a combination of physical and mental functions upon which external and internal influences may impact. Mental workload includes the notions of expertise, memory, attention, situation awareness, and social and organisational factors, whilst physical workload includes the loads handled, distance travelled, speed of performance and many other factors. Human performance is often defined in terms of speed of performance or errors, but may be measured in many ways. 
Hydration  Hydration refers to the amount of water in the body. As humans are approximately 60% water and rely on being well-hydrated for optimal performance, being under-hydrated can negatively affect both work performance and health.
Injuries from animals  Handling or working with animals may result in injuries from handling them - e.g. lifting and handling sheep when shearing/drenching; or from unexpected actions of the animal harming the handler - e.g., scratches and bites from smaller animals, stomping, kicking or being crushed/rolled on by a larger animal. 
Immunisation  Immunisation is a way of preventing infectious diseases by being vaccinated.  In New Zealand vaccinations are offered to babies, children and adults to protect against serious and preventable diseases. New Zealand immunisation programmes address diseases such as whooping cough, HPV, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A&B, meningitis, tetanus, polio and diphtheria as well as specific immunisation required when travelling to specific countries.
Manual handling (lifting, twisting)  Manual handling is any activity requiring a person to interact with their environment and use any part of their muscles or skeletal system to lift, lower, push, pull, carry, throw, move, restrain or hold any animate or inanimate object. 
Mental overload/ underload  Consideration of the overall mental load of operators performing tasks. Mental workload includes expertise, memory, attention, situation awareness, and social and organisational factors as well as other internal and external factors. Work performance may be impacted by both mental overload and underload. 
Mining, quarrying & tunnelling Collectively work in these sectors is usually referred to as the 'Extractives industry' and refers to the removal of metals, mineral and aggregates from the earth. New Zealand legislation places requirements on the extractives industry with regard to health and safety, specific to the type of operation. This includes the Health and Safety at Work (Mining Operations and Quarrying Operations) Regulations 2016.
Mobile plant or machinery Plant is machinery used in an industrial or manufacturing process. Mobile plant refers to moving vehicles and equipment, which have the potential to cause serious injury or kill someone by striking them or colliding with other vehicles or equipment.
Natural disasters  Natural disasters are any catastrophic event that is caused by nature or the natural processes of the earth (e.g. earthquake, tsunami). The severity of a disaster is measured in lives lost, economic loss, and the ability of the population to rebuild. Events that occur in unpopulated areas are not considered disasters.
Needlestick injuries  An injury cause by penetration of skin by a needle or other sharp object which was in contact with blood, tissue, or other body fluid before the exposure. Needlestick injuries primarily affect healthcare workers, but other occupations can also be at increased risk (e.g. law enforcement, tattoo artists, food preparers, and agricultural workers). While acute physiological effects of a needlestick injury are generally negligible, the can transmit blood-borne diseases, placing those exposed at increased risk of contracting infectious diseases (e.g. hepatitis, HIV)
Noise  Noise is sound that is not wanted by the perceiver, because it is unpleasant, loud, or interferes with hearing. This results in the subjective discretion between sound and noise, where any sound may be considered noise depending on the perceiver. 
Nutrition  Meeting the body's needs for energy and vitamins/minerals via the food and drink we consume.  
On-the-job road or vehicle accidents  Driver-vehicle-road-pedestrian interactions form a complex system with many causal factors that can contribute to accidents. The human factors that require consideration include both physiological - the nervous system, vision, hearing, stability sensations, other senses (e.g. haptic, touch and smell) and modifiers (e.g. fatigue, drugs) as well as psychological factors - such as perception, expectations, motivation, intelligence, learning/experience, emotion, maturity, conditioning and habits. Human Factors considerations need to be assessed in conjunction with vehicle and road environment factors as these impact on human performance. 
Working in and around vehicles Driver-vehicle-road-pedestrian interactions form a complex system with many causal factors that can contribute to accidents. The human factors that require consideration include both physiological - the nervous system, vision, hearing, stability sensations, other senses (e.g. haptic, touch and smell) and modifiers (e.g. fatigue, drugs) as well as psychological factors - such as perception, expectations, motivation, intelligence, learning/experience, emotion, maturity, conditioning and habits. Human Factors considerations need to be assessed in conjunction with vehicle and road environment factors as these impact on human performance. 
Pesticides and herbicides Chemical poisons used to kill pests. Includes herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.
Radiation Radiation is energy which is transmitted, emitted or absorbed in the form of particles or waves. There are two main sections of the electromagnetic field, which are split into ionising and non-ionising radiation. The ionising radiation group includes gamma and x-rays as well as alpha, beta, proton and neutrons. Non-ionising radiation includes microwaves, lasers and radio waves.
Remote / isolated work  Work can be remote or isolated from the assistance of other persons because of location, time, or the nature of the work. Work can be isolated without being remote, and be remote without being isolated.  Remote or isolated work includes working alone or separated from colleagues, working in a geographically isolated or inaccessible area - where the nearest emergency help (e.g. fire service or hospital) is some distance away, working outside normal business hours or shift/night work, and working in locations where communication is difficult.
Repair and maintenance of equipment  While necessary for the safe and efficient running of equipment, the installation, decommissioning, repair, servicing, adjusting, calibrating and cleaning activities on machinery and equipment in the workplace also presents risks of injury.  New Zealand regulations require that machinery is safe to clean, maintain and repair. Procedures must be put in place for these activities and workers trained to follow them.
Repetitive tasks  Activities that require the same physical actions to be performed repeatedly may expose workers to greater injury risk than from one-off tasks due to demands placed on the muscles, other soft tissues and the skeletal system. Consideration should be given to task variation, work-rest routines, and individual strength and fitness. 
Sedentary work Non physically-demanding work activities (usually in sitting), that do not require large range changes of position or place much cardiovascular load on the body. 
Slips, trips and falls Slips are loss of traction events (usually with the feet); trips are when a step is disrupted by contact with an object. Both slips and trips may result in a fall, though falls may also occur for other reasons. Falls are when a loss of balance or other event occurs, causing the body to fall due to gravity onto a lower surface.
Substances hazardous to health  A substance, or product containing a substance, that is known or suspected to cause harm to health. this includes a substance classified as having toxic or corrosive properties under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, a substance for which a prescribed exposure standard exists (e.g. a workplace exposure standard) and a substance specified in a safe work instrument as requiring health monitoring.
Temperature extremes  Excessive exposure to heat is referred to as heat stress and excessive exposure to cold is referred to as cold stress. In a very hot environment, the most serious concern is heat stroke.  Heat exhaustion, and fainting (syncope) are less serious types illnesses which are not fatal but interfere with a person's ability to work.  At very cold temperatures, the most serious concern is the risk of hypothermia or dangerous overcooling of the body. Another serious effect of cold exposure is frostbite or freezing of the exposed extremities such as fingers, toes, nose and ear lobes.
Toxicology  Toxicology is the study of adverse effects of agents on living organisms. It is primary concerned with assessing toxicological risk involved with working with chemicals. It can be used for assessing whether a new product is less hazardous than the original, for creating in house exposure levels where no regulatory level exists.  
Trenching and excavations  Digging into the earth for the purposes of trenching or excavation carries risks of collapse and the potential to catch water deep enough to be dangerous. Where needed, shoring to prevent collapse and covering, fencing, or filling once work is completed is important to ensure the safety of others.  New Zealand requirements for excavation activity at work is included in the Approved Code of Practice for Excavations and Shafts for Foundations.
Ultraviolet light  Ultraviolet light is a type of electromagnetic radiation which can be used in chemical processing, or it can be damaging to materials and living tissues. The most common form of UV light is from sunlight but it can also be used in artificial sources such as: for disinfecting surfaces, tanning booths, black lights, curing lamps, germicidal lamps, mercury vapour lamps, halogen lights, high-intensity discharge lamps, fluorescent and incandescent sources, plus some types of lasers.
Using / operating machinery  The use and operation of powered tools, machines or vehicles, that may be remote (operator does not sit in the cab/vehicle or hold the tool/machine) or directly controlled (operator is in the immediate vicinity of the tool/vehicle/machine). 
Vaccine A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognise the agent as a threat, destroy it, and recognise and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines can be prophylactic (e.g. to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are being investigated).Immunisation is the process of developing immunity to diseases by way of vaccination.
Vaccination  Treatment with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation. 
Vibration Vibration is an oscillatory motion that occurs in solids. Workers may be exposed to two types of vibration. 1 - hand transmitted, commonly resulting in hand/arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) where the vibration enters the body through the hands; 2 - whole body vibration (WBV) which occurs when the body is supported on a surface which is vibrating.  Vibration can also transmit sound for example vibrating panels on machine casings or  in a ventilation system.  
Weather conditions / events  Weather conditions/events are the atmospheric conditions that comprise the state of the atmosphere in terms of temperature, wind, clouds, and precipitation. Adverse weather conditions/events can effect a person's ability to work safely by introducing hazards such as slips, darkness, wind etc. The management of these hazards is an integral part of risk assessment, particularly with work that is outside.
Wellbeing Wellbeing, welfare or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group, for example their social, economic, psychological, spiritual or medical state. A high level of wellbeing means in some sense the individual or group's condition is positive, while low wellbeing is associated with negative happenings.Work-life balance is a concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation).
Working in confined spaces  A confined space is defined as an enclosed or partially enclosed space that is not intended or designed primarily for human occupancy. It is liable to have an atmosphere that contains harmful contaminants or not contain a safe oxygen level. It may have contents that could cause engulfment. It may have restricted means for entry and exit. Examples include: storage tanks, tank cars, process vessels, boilers, silos, pits, pipes, sewers, shafts, ducts and shipboard spaces.
Working at height  Work at height means working in a place where a person could be injured if they fell from one level to another. This can be above or below ground level. Work at height does not include slipping, tripping or falling at the same level.  Duty-holders under HSWA must take all reasonably practicable steps to ensure the safety of workers when they are exposed to a fall or where the hazard of a fall exists.
Workplace and equipment design  The design of workplaces or work equipment to optimise health and safety and productivity. 
Work-life balance  Work-life balance is a concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (health, pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development/meditation).